combat writing badge

Military Colleges & Schools

Military Colleges & Schools

Reference Notes

A military academy is an educational institution that's oriented toward military subjects set in a paramilitary ethos that's designed to instill leadership characteristics in its students, typically as preparation for service as officers in the armed forces. Although the phrase military school primarily refers to pre-collegiate institutions [cf: military college], the phrase military academy can refer to any level of educational institution, private or publicly funded, from grammar through graduate, including state or national government sponsorship.

Date Name of School
1739 Scuola di Applicazione Militare, Turin, Italy (originally the Royal Schools of Artillery and Fortifications, later the School of Artillery and Military Engineering, founded by Carlo Emanuele II, King of Sardinia; formed by the merger of these schools with the Parma Infantry School and Pinerolo Cavalry School) [cf: The Granatieri Corps (1659, derived grenade) by Duke Carlo Emanuele II; The Carabinieri Corps (1814, derived carbine and sword) by King Vittorio Emanuele I; The Bersaglieri Corps (1836, derived targets) by General Alessandro Lamarmora; The Alpini Corps (1872, derived mountain) by General Giuseppe Perrucchetti]
1741 Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, England (commonly known as The Shop for engineer and artillery; motto: Serve to Lead; closed 1939, merged with Royal Military College at Sandhurst after WWII hiatus)
1748-9 Ecole du Corps Royal du Geme, Mezieres, France (closed by Robespierre)
1750 Krigsskolen [Norwegian Military Academy], Norway (motto: Si Vis Pacem, Para Bellum — Let him who desires peace prepare for war.)
1751 Ecole Royale Militaire, Paris, France (founded by Louis XV, closed by Robespierre)
1790 Academia Real de Fortificao e Defesso, Portugal (formed an all-arms cadet college in 1837)
1794 Ecole Polytechnique (originally Ecole Centrale des Travauz Publics)
1799 Royal Military College, Marlow and High Wycombe, England (prompted by Gespard Le Merchant; closed 1939, merged with Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst after WWII hiatus)
1802 United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (motto: Duty, Honor, Country; not actually opened with cadets attending until 1812 due to American distrust of a professional army)
1806 Kriegsakademie [Prussian Military Academy], Berlin, Germany (founded by Gerhard von Scharnhorst, by conversion of the earlier Ritterakadamie, the 16th century cadet house institution; v: von Clausewitz, von Steinmetz, von Moltke, von Blumenthal)
1808 Ecole Speciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (or Saint Cyr l'Ecole; commonly known as ESM [Special Military School] or Saint-Cyr), Coetquidan, France (moved to Brittany from Saint-Cyr in 1945; founded by Napoleon Bonaparte, the Little Corporal)
1809 East India Company Military Seminary, Addiscombe, England (patterned on the Royal Military Academy; closed 1861)
1812 Greenbrier Military School, Lewisburg, WV [originated as Greenbrier Academy (perhaps as early as 1808), also known as The Brick Academy, and later incorporated nearby Lee Military Academy; name changed to Greenbrier Presbyterial Military School from 1906-22, then reverted; closed 1972]
1819 Norwich University, Northfield, VT (founded as the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy until 1834), later incorporating the Military College of Vermont (known as the birthplace of ROTC; motto: I Will Try; renamed Lewis College during 1880-4, reverted until its 1898 renaming as the Military College of the State of Vermont; became racially integrated in 1916; a mountain and cold weather warfare unit was added in 1947; became coeducational in 1974)
1823 Heroic Military College, Mexico City, Mexico (commemorating the cadets [niuos heróicos] who fought the Americans in the 1847 Battle of Chapultepec in the Mexican War)
1828 Jefferson College, Washington, MS (closed)
1828 New Jersey Institution, Orange, NJ (closed)
1829 Richland School, Rice Springs, SC (closed)
1829 Western Literary and Scientific Institution, Buffalo, NY (closed)
1836 Carson Long Military Institute, PA (formerly New Bloomfield Academy)
1839 Virginia Literary, Scientific and Military Academy, Portsmouth, VA (closed 1846)
1839 Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA (also known as the West Point of the South; motto: Consilio et Animis — By Wisdom and Courage; closed from June 1864 to October 1865 due to destruction during the Civil War; became coeducational in 1997)
1840 Collegiate and Commercial Institute, New Haven, CT (closed)
1840 The Arrow Rock Military Academy, Arrow Rock, MO (closed)
1842 Pennsylvania Literary, Scientific and Military Academy, Bristol, PA (closed 1845)
1842 The Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (established as the South Carolina Military Academy; designated the Battalion of State Cadets under the governor during the Civil War; closed during the period of Reconstruction 1865-82; renamed in 1910; became racially integrated in 1966 and coeducational in 1996)
1842 Marion Military Institute, Marion, AL
1842 Mary Baldwin College, Staunton, VA (re: Virginia Women's Institute for Leadership 1995)
1844 Saint Louis Military Academy, St. Louis, MO (closed)
1844 Kemper Military School and College, Boonville, MO (closed)
1845 Pennsylvania Military Institute, Harrisburg, PA (closed 1848)
1845 United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD
1846 Wilmington Literary, Scientific and Military Academy, Wilmington, DE (closed 1848)
1847 Mount Sterling Literary, Scientific and Military Academy, Mt. Sterling, KY (closed)
1850 Scientific and Military Collegiate Institute, Reading, PA (closed 1854)
1850 Gymnasium and Military Institute, Pembroke, NH (closed 1853)
1852 Oak Ridge Military Academy, NC
1853 National Scientific and Military Academy, Brandywine Springs, DE (closed)
1854 King's Mountain Military School, Yorkville, SC (closed)
1859 North Carolina Military Institute, Charlotte, NC (closed)
1860 Louisiana State Seminary of Learning and Military Academy, LA
1862 the Justin Smith Morrill Land-Grant College Act, based upon earlier proposals by George Clinton (1783), Alden Partridge (1841), and Jonathan B. Turner (1851), mandated military training as a supplement to the agricultural and industrial education authorized in state supported institutions
1872 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and University, Blacksburg, VA (also known as Virginia Tech and V-Tech)
1873 North Georgia College and State University, Dahlonega, GA
1874 State University of New York Maritime College, Fort Schuyler, Throggs Neck, Bronx, NY (formerly known as New York Maritime College)
1874 New York Nautical School, Long Island, NY (academic portion becoming State University of New York [SUNY] and maritime portion transferred to U.S. Merchant Marine Academy)
1874 Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
1876 Texas A&M University, College Station, TX
1876 United States Coast Guard Academy, New London, CT (known as United States Revenue Cutter Service School of Instruction until 1915)
1879 Georgia Military College, Milledgeville, GA
1879 Chamberlain-Hunt Academy, MS
1879 Fishburne Military School, Waynesboro, VA
1880 Wentworth Military Academy and Junior College, Lexington, MO
1883 LaSalle Military Academy , NY (closed)
1884 Howe Military School, IN
1884 Saint John's and Northwestern Military Academy, WI (formerly separate St. John's Military Academy and Northwestern Military Academy)
1885 Saint Thomas Academy, MN
1887 Saint John's Military School, KS
1889 Missouri Military Academy, MO
1889 New York Military Academy, Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY (founded by Charles Jefferson Wright; becoming coeducational in 1975)
1889 Saint Catherine's Military School, CA
1891 New Mexico Military Institute, Roswell, NM
1891 Pennsylvania Nautical School, PA
1892 Randolph-Macon Academy, VA
1893 Texas Military Institute, TX
1893 Millersburg Military Institute, KY
1893 Massachusetts Nautical School, MA
1894 Culver Military Academy, IN
1895 Scotland School, Scranton, PA (for orphans of veterans; closed 2008)
1898 Fork Union Military Academy, VA
1898 Lyman Ward Military Academy, AL
1899 Massanutten Military Academy, VA
1907 Riverside Military Academy, GA
1907 San Marcos Baptist Academy, TX
1909 Hargrave Military Academy, VA
1910 Army and Navy Academy, CA
1911 Royal Military College, Duntroon, Canberra, Australia
1914 Association of Military Colleges and Schools
1916 Reserve Officer's Training Corps (ROTC) formed by the National Defense Act
1917 Free Training Schools for Merchant Marine Officers (OCS-type course administered by United States Shipping Board for WWI emergency service; terminated 1921)
1928 Valley Forge Military Academy and College, Wayne, PA (motto: Courage, Honor, Conquer; founded by LTG Milton G. Baker; formerly situated in Devon, but relocated to the site of the old Saint Luke's School)
1933 Admiral Farragut Academy, FL
1933 Marmion Academy, IL
1938 United States Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, Long Island, NY (1874 New York Nautical School and other maritime training centers, together with 1917-1921 Free Training Schools for Merchant Marine Officers administered by the United States Shipping Board, coalesced into 1938 founding of Merchant Marine Cadet Corps, graduating first class in 1942 and dedicating Academy campus in 1943)
1947 Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, England (motto: Serve to Lead; combined establishment after WWII hiatus)
1954 United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, CO
1957 Camden Military Academy, SC
1959 Antilles Military Academy, PR
1961 Florida Air Academy, FL
1963 American Military Academy, PR
1965 Marine Military Academy, TX

Fictitious Military Academies

Bunker Hill Military Academy (in movie Taps, filmed at Valley Forge Military Academy)
Davidson Military Academy (in movie Damien: Omen II, filmed at Northwestern Military Academy and St. John's Military Academy [now merged into St. John's Northwestern Military Academy]; Northwestern was founded by Harlan Page Davidson)
Kent Military School (in movie Child's Play 3, filmed at Kemper Military School and College, Boonville, MO [closed in 2002])
Rommelwood Military Academy (in The Secret War of Lisa Simpson episode of The Simpsons)
Carolina Military Institute (from book and movie The Lords of Discipline by Pat Conroy, based on The Citadel)